Reference Range for LDL-P


Laboratory testing plays a very important role in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of any disease in patients. Generally, 70% of the information needed for a correct diagnosis & health management is in your blood. This data is critical for not just treating the disease, but for wellness & prevention as well. An estimated 70% of all decisions on diagnosis & treatment, hospital admission & discharge of a patient are based on the outcome of laboratory investigations.

Did you know that your blood cells regenerate every 120 days? This allows you to quickly measure the progress you are making from lifestyle & nutritional modifications.

Approximately 41% of the people who experience a heart attack will die from it!

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most misdiagnosed and mistreated conditions in medicine; 50% of heart attack patients have normal HDL & LDL levels. That means we need to look beyond HDL/LDL levels.

The common misconception is that cholesterol is fat and the more you consume fat the higher your risk for heart diseases. Then, what is cholesterol? It is not technically a fat; in fact, cholesterol is fat-soluble while blood is mostly water. Cholesterol gets transported around the body in blood, carried by special proteins called lipoproteins. Based on their density, these lipoproteins are classified into two, viz., low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

LDL-P is a much better predictor of heart disease!

But there is another important factor that gets ignored so often while measuring the cholesterol, the number of LDL particles or LDL-P. Actually, the number of LDL particles (i.e., LDL-P) is a much better predictor of heart disease risk than the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) or total cholesterol. The lower the particle number and the larger the particle size, the less risk you face.

The Car Analogy!

The following analogy will help you understand it better: 

Consider the lipoproteins as cars that carry the cholesterol and fats around your body, and the cholesterol and fats are like passengers in the cars. Historically, we were falsely led to believe that the number of passengers in the car (i.e. concentration of cholesterol in the LDL particle or LDL-C) is what is causing the development of heart disease, but actually, it is the number of cars or particles of cholesterol that is causing the real damage. 

The more cars you have on the road at one time, the more likely some of them “crash” into the fragile lining of the artery, leading to artery wall damage and other complications. So, it’s not the number of passengers (cholesterol) the cars are carrying is the real villain, but the number of cars on the highway. In other words, patients with high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and low LDL particle number (LDL-P) are not at high risk of heart disease.

So, how do you know your LDL-P number? You get it by undergoing a test called NMR LipoProfile.

Heart disease is a complex, multifactorial process. The likelihood that we’ll have a heart attack depends on numerous factors, including genetics, diet, lifestyle and living environment. And LDL-P is NOT the only risk factor that matters!

The more risk factors you have & the greater the level of each risk factor, the higher your chance of developing coronary heart disease



bodyguards of your cells
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At any given moment, millions of processes are taking place within your bodies. These processes include when your immune system causes inflammation while fighting off bacteria with the pollutants, pesticides, and cigarette smoke detoxifying your body, or when the body cells use glucose to create energy. When this happens your body naturally undergoes something called oxidation resulting in the production of free radicals. These free radicals cause ageing, heart diseases, cell damage & death, and that’s a pretty serious statement and conclusion! 

What is oxidative stress?

Your body is under constant attack from oxidative stress. By wrong lifestyle choices, you make billions of free radicals in your body resulting in oxidative stress. This can also increase when you are physically and/or emotionally stressed. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants (too many free radicals and too few antioxidants). It is a condition that results when your body does not have enough antioxidants to counter free radicals in your body. 

Oxidative Stress
What are free radicals?

Free radicals are unstable molecules that has atoms with electrons that are not in pairs. Electrons love to stay in pairs. They go looking for electrons and steal them from nearby atoms. This process spreads like a chain reaction all over the body, and in no time your body is filled with atoms without paired electrons. This leads to cell damage, cell death, fatigue, and accelerated ageing.  

Free radicals are associated with diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and among others.
Cell damage and cell death

Basically, free radicals can be seen as waste products from various chemical reactions in the cell that, when built up, harm the cells of your body.

Where do they come from?

Sources of free radicals can be found right from the food we eat, the air we breathe, the medicines we take, and the water we drink. They include fried foods, alcohol, tobacco smoke, pesticides and air pollutants.

Here are a few signs that you could look for when oxidative stress occurs in your body - fatigue, headaches, noise sensitivity, memory loss and brain fog, muscle and joint pain, wrinkles and grey hair, decreased eyesight, and susceptibility to infection.  

Signs and symptoms

Also, your body is a well-oiled machine well into your 20’s with respect to antioxidant production. During this stage of your life, free radicals don’t stand a chance against natural disease, but as you grow older, your antioxidant system slows down and you have increasingly harder time fighting free radicals. As a result, your body begins an accelerated ageing process.

The remedy!

The only way you can neutralise those free radicals is by consuming antioxidants in the form of fruits & vegetables. Antioxidants are molecules in cells that prevent free radicals from taking electrons and causing damage. They are basically atoms in the body that donate electrons to free radicals to behave nicely before they attack healthy cells. 
Nutralise free radicals

Limit your consumption of processed foods, alcohol, quit smoking (if you do), exercise less strenuously, eat bright coloured fruits and vegetables and you are well on your way.

Remember, the difference between who you are and who you want to be is what you do NOW!

The importance of adding raw food is extremely beneficial when it comes to healing and prevention of diseases. The inner lining of your cells got ultra-thin sensitive cells called endothelial cells or endothelium. The function of these endothelial cells is to regulate blood pressure and blood flow. When these endothelial cells are in good condition, they allow communication between cells and they allow the absorption of vital oxygen and nutrient rich blood to your cells, and that’s the foundation good health and good immunity. 

The enemy called free radicals!

Your body consists of billions of molecules with atoms that contain electrons; the electrons inside the atoms get upset when they are not in pairs and these molecules with upset electrons are called free radicals. The increase of free radicals in your body causes oxidative stress. With wrong food choices, inactivity, stress, pollution, and smoking a lot of free radicals get into your body and disturb the bonding of electrons within the cells. These free radicals look for electrons from healthy cells and take away electrons from cells that are bonded with two electrons and make them free radicals and trigger a chain reaction to other cells. This process keeps repeating and cause cell damage, cell death, fatigue, and accelerated aging. An elevated oxidative stress load is a contributing factor to many chronic diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases among others.

The oxidative stress is caused by poor eating habits, too much of sugar, smoking, processed food, stress, improper sleep, and too much of exercise. With oxidative stress, the endothelial get damaged and the body’s natural defense mechanism is inflammation.

When you have inflammation in your endothelial cells:
  • It alters the way your blood flows
  • It reduces the production of a very important molecule called nitric oxide. 
Nitric oxide is a molecule that signals your arteries when to dilate. So, when you have less nitric oxide in your blood vessels, you will have high blood pressure.  High blood pressure is the leading cause of many cardiac diseases such as clots, stroke, and cardiac arrest.

So, how do you improve the health of these endothelial cells? The addition of raw of foods into your diet could be handy. Most of the nutritional value of your cooked food is very low. We live in a world where most of the soil is depleted; which means, a plant that grows from a depleted soil is also depleted in nutrition. By the time a bunch of vegetables reaches your table, they are devoid of most of the nutrition. On top of that, you cook it, steam it, or fry it - we kill most of the nutrition. Doesn’t mean you replace your food with raw food items. 

Why go raw?

The lifestyle change we all should aim at is to have some raw food with every meal we eat, i.e., give yourself some cooked food and also give yourself some raw food so that your body gets live enzymes that do most of the repairing job in your pancreas, endothelium, and your entire body. This means better digestion and better absorption of nutrients. We all know that it’s not about what we eat, it’s about how our body breaks it down.

So, try adding some fruits to your breakfast along with your cooked food. Similarly, have some raw vegetables as part of your lunch along wth your cooked food. Likewise, for dinner, you could include a glass of vegetable juice or a bowl of salad or fruits. The idea is to include a proportion of raw food into your each meal along with your cooked food. A good proportion would be 50% raw and the balance 50% cooked. Probably, you can start with 30% raw and 70% cooked.

Even if you are eating junk food, try having some raw food before you eat them as your junk food does not have any nutrients in them. This way you strike a good balance. 

Try bringing in this lifestyle change and you will notice your overall health start falling in place.

Weight loss is not about dieting or burning calories, it’s about good chemistry and good communication between your cells and your hormones. 

Save your endothelial cells!

When you take up the raw food diet, you become a new, different and better person. You don’t just stay the old person, only a little healthier. You become, to a great extent, a new being with new interests, a new philosophy & outlook on life, new goals, and desires. You become more of your essence, your true and natural self.

Save your endothelial cells with every bite you take!

Chewing your food the right way has a lot of magic. Right from losing weight and to make sure the nutrient that you eat are completely absorbed into your system.  The number one cause of bloating, flatulence, indigestion, constipation, diarrhoea, and acidity could be due to the way you chew your food.

Well, there is a reason why we are born with teeth and there is a reason why we have saliva in our mouth that keeps generating all the time. 

When you start chewing, your teeth breaks down the food into smaller particles which when enters your stomach get digested and goes into the intestines. It’s in your intestine that all the nutrition and the nutrients from the food that you are eating gets absorbed into your body. But when you allow undigested or large particles of food pass through your stomach and intestines, you are actually destroying most of the nutrients in the food you eat. Add to that, a lot of these food particles get into your blood causing a host of health problems.

The digestion of the food starts in your mouth!

When you chew your food, it mixes with saliva. The saliva contains two very important enzymes; one is called lipase which has the function of breaking down fat and the other enzyme, amylase, breaks down carbohydrates. Yes, the digestion of the food starts in your mouth when saliva mixes with your food. When you eat too quickly, it doesn’t have time to mix with saliva; it directly goes into the oesophagus and then into your stomach, and it’s not pre-digested. 

Your food is meant to be pre-digested as you eat!

Lipase starts breaking down fat and amylase breaks down carbohydrates right in your mouth. Therefore, the digestion of fats and carbs doesn’t start in your stomach; it starts in your mouth. There is a very important reason why that’s happening, because the moment the digestion of carbs and fats starts in your mouth, the brain gets a signal that it’s receiving carbs and fats and that limits the amount of craving that you will have for food. But when you eat quickly, your brain doesn’t get that signal and you continue to have more craving, you continue to feel hungry, and you end up eating more and more food because your brain still waiting for that signal to get carbs and fats. 

So, it’s extremely important to understand your saliva has a role. Also, when you chew, the bones holding your teeth get a 'workout', helping to keep them strong. The saliva produced while chewing is helping to clear food particles from your mouth and wash away bacteria, so there is less plaque buildup and tooth decay. 

Eating healthy & still struggle to lose weight?

We know people who eat extremely healthy, viz., salads, fruits, and all the super foods available and they still have nutritional deficiencies. We know people who eat healthy & exercise hard and still struggle to lose weight. Most of the answers can be in your digestion and the way you eat your food. Nutrients from the food that you eat need to be absorbed by your intestine and sent into your blood to your cells. For that nutrition to reach to your cells, correct amount of digestion has to happen. Again it starts in your mouth! You break down food particles into smaller particles; it passes through your stomach, gets digested, goes into your intestine in a size where nutrients can be extracted before they are sent to all your cells. 

In contrast, when you eat food quickly and send down larger chunks of food into your stomach, you lose most of the nutrition contained in your food even if you are eating extremely healthy. Add to that, a lot of undigested food particles get into your blood system. 

Your intestines have good and bad bacteria, and the good bacteria takes out the nutrients and sends them into your cells. But when you have undigested food particles,  you are actually feeding the bad bacteria and that’s when you have bloating, diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal cramps. and flatulence. It’s because you allow the undigested food to putrefy in your intestines. 

When pre-digested food from chewing reaches your stomach, your stomach has to produce the right amount of acid to break down already pre-digested food and your whole digestion system gets much better. So, remember when you eat fast you are sending large particles into your stomach because it’s not pre-digested with your saliva, and the stomach needs to produce more and more acid to break down that food, killing nutrients, presenting you with the byproducts of bloating, flatulence, indigestion, constipation, diarrhoea, stomach cramps again. 

The best way to lose weight is to start chewing your food!

Try it out next time you have your lunch or dinner. When you chew your food properly, you are sending signals to your brain that you are receiving carbs and fats and you stop craving for more food, which means lesser amount of food fills you up, lesser calorie intake and you lose weight. One of the main reasons why people put on weight is due to over consumption of food. We all know that it’s calorie at the end of the day. Whatever your body doesn’t use, they get stored as fat. 

So, try chewing your food and eat it really, really slowly and mindfully, and you'll be surprised that you will be fuller much, much quicker with food still left on your plate. Now, imagine the amount of “less calorie intake” you gain by chewing it right.

Also, see what happens when you push down large particles through your food pipe (obviously they are not pre-digested in your mouth), it actually scrapes against the mucosal lining of your food pipe (oesophagus), creating more and more problems for you. If you have a weak oesophagus and you have too much acid, it can cause acid reflux, which is the burning sensation in your throat, and eventually lead to the cancer of oesophagus. 

Many people continue to take antacids to counter acidity, but you can take control of it just by eating the right way and also staying away from the side effects of those medications.

75% of energy in human body goes towards digestion!

And that’s because we eat so much. Our digestive system ends up using so much energy to break down food which should have been pre-digested in our mouth. In other words, if we can prevent the digestive system from stealing this energy, it would allow our cells to use it to make us feel stronger, more energetic throughout the day. So help your body to distribute its energy equally to the billions of cells which is your immunity. 

If you send right nutrients to your cells, you profit from stronger cells, stronger immunity, less aches & pains, and more alkalinity in your body which means weight loss becomes easier! 

Yes, one small lifestyle change of chewing can do wonders to you!

As there is art of eating, there is an art of drinking water as well. Human body consists of about 37.2 trillion cells and 75-80% of these cells live in water. They require water for strong immunity, metabolic activity, weight loss, and cellular function. The way we drink water is extremely important to our health. We hear everywhere the benefits of drinking water and we see people trying to drink more water, but there is a way to drink water.

Sit and sip your water slowly!

When you sip your water slowly, it mixes with saliva. Your saliva is alkaline in nature while your stomach is acidic in nature for all the right reasons because your stomach requires a certain amount of acid to digest your food and that’s great, but too much acid with excess amount of food or bad food is a cause for worry. So, we want our saliva get into our stomach so that the alkaline effect of saliva can stabilise excess acid in the stomach. One way to get the saliva into your stomach is the way we drink water. 

Excess amount of water affects digestive process!

Another way to get saliva into stomach is to drink water 15-20 min before your meal and 15-20 min after your meal; preferably lukewarm or room temperature water. Now, if you feel that you must drink water while you are eating, it should be a sprinkle of water into your stomach and you don’t want to drink large amounts of water so that you leave enough of space for digestive activity. Also, excess amount of water dilutes the acid in your stomach and affects the digestive process. 

Drink when thirsty, but don’t wait to become too thirsty!

The human body has a defence mechanism and a warning mechanism. It tells us when we are hungry if you listen to it, and it also tells when we are thirsty. You need to be careful when you are in an air-conditioned environment as you may not get the signal when you are thirsty and you become dehydrated. Don’t worry, there are certain indicators that you can rely on - your lips can become dry if your body has low levels of water and you need to drink water immediately. Another indicator is the colour of your urine. Straw-coloured to transparent-yellow urine indicates the normal urine colour of a healthy, well-hydrated body. It turns darker in yellow when there is less water in your body (remember some over-the-counter and prescription medications can also make your urine more darker; this includes antibiotics, laxatives, and certain chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer).

The amount of water you need depends on your body!

When you drink large amounts of water too quickly, most of it goes out of your system too quickly. What you want for good cellular metabolism and good cellular energy & activity is to get the water absorbed into your cells. So, when you sip your water slowly, you allow it to get absorbed into your cells. 

So, the amount of water you need to drink depends on your body, the kind of food you eat. For example coffee acts like a diuretic and for every glass of coffee you might need to drink 2 glasses of water for the excess water that is flushed out.

A glass of water before having a shower helps you lower your blood pressure and it’s extremely important.

Allow your body to use right amount of energy for digestion!

And when it comes to losing weight, drink water slowly as mentioned before. When you drink slowly, you allow the digestion to ease, you enhance the digestion, and you allow the body to use right amount of energy for digestion. Today, most of our digestive system rob energy from our body to digest all the food that we eat and especially when we eat them the wrong way. You can minimise the energy spent on digestion by sipping water slowly, you sip yourself some amount of weight loss as well. 

So master the art of drinking and keep yourselves healthy!

It’s no secret…

Many of us have poor sleep habits.

In fact:

As I type this sentence, my clock says it’s 1:27am here in Colorado.   I’ve gotta be up in 6 hours! Yikes! 🙂

Over the past month, my research team here at has been digging up some really interesting sleep facts that I thought we’d share with you.

Like this one:

Martha Stewart only gets 4 hours asleep in an average night.

and this one…

Kids will spend 40% of their childhood asleep.

I don’t know about you, but I didn’t know either one of those!

So without further adeu…

Here are 61 of the most interesting sleep facts we dug up in our research.

Oh…and don’t forget to share and comment!


Sleep Infographic from MattressInsider

Learn more about sleep at:

If you only learn one new thing here today, it should be this: almost half of all Americans are not getting enough sleep every night. The lack of sleep is even more noticeable in younger people.

Adults should be getting 7 to 9 hours of sleep, but almost half of them are not. Shift workers are getting the least amount of sleep out of all American adults, with over 40% of them getting less than 6 hours of sleep per night.

Teenagers should be getting 8 to 10 hours of sleep, but almost three-quarters of them are not. Some school districts are trying to fix this problem of sleep deprivation by pushing back the starting time for school. However, a lot of teenagers just see this as another reason to stay up later.

The Sleepy States

In a large study of Americans and their sleeping habits, almost half a million people were interviewed and asked to report on how many hours of sleep they usually got on an average night. This brought about some interesting statistics, and some that were quite surprising. In total, accounting for all of the states, around 35% of those interviewed said they were getting less than 7 hours of sleep per night on average.

That was not the surprising part, but the breakdown between states may be a bit of a surprise for some. Hawaii actually had the worst results in this study, with only 56% of those interviewed reporting to have had at least 7 hours of sleep per night. That really breaks apart the whole image of a tropical paradise that many Americans have when they think about Hawaii.

In contrast to that, South Dakota had the best results in this study with 72% of those interviewed reporting to have had at least 7 hours of sleep per night. This result lines up fairly well with the rest of the states around the middle of the country – most of these states range from 66% to 71% of people getting at least 7 hours of sleep per night.

States that are closer to the east coast are worse off for sleeping habits in general, and the states closer to the west coast only did a little bit better in this study. So, if you are looking for a good night’s sleep, maybe it’s time to head inland for some more quiet time.

Sleeping Patterns of the World

When you take a look at how much sleep that people are getting around the world, there doesn’t seem to be as much variation as you may have thought. The results are all fairly consistent, with only a few minutes on average separating countries such as the USA, UK, Canada, Mexico, and most European countries. The biggest differences can be seen in the sleeping patterns in Japan, South Korea, and some other Asian countries, which get about one hour less sleep than the USA.

Sleeping Habits

In another set of sleeping facts that should come as no surprise to most people, most Americans like to sleep in on the weekends. On Friday and Saturday nights, Americans sleep for almost half an hour longer on average. It’s probably safe to say that most people would love to sleep in every day of the week as well, but work, parenting, and other responsibilities mean that is just not possible.

American kids and teenagers tend to go to bed later than adults, and then wake up later as well. It’s not their fault, and they’re not just lazy. Other studies have shown that younger people are just hardwired to stay up later. No matter what you try to do, there are real biological causes that come in to play, making younger people get tired later in the day than adults.

Couples tend to go to bed earlier, and wake up earlier as well. This may not have anything to do with actually being in a couple, but more based on the fact that the couples surveyed were in their 20s, 30s, and beyond, and all of these age groups tend to wake up earlier for work compared to other groups.

Work and Sleep

More than half (58%) of workers in this study reported that they feel like they are not getting enough sleep, and 61% of workers say that their work is negatively affected by their lack of sleep. Just under half (43%) say that they have caught a co-worker sleeping on the job, and 20% have used some of their sick days just to get more sleep.

When you look at the big picture, all of these tired workers are causing quite a large drop in productivity overall for the businesses that they work for. There is no easy solution to all of this, obviously, because we have all experienced days at work where we know we’re not getting as much done as we should be. It’s easy to say “just get more sleep” but in reality that just isn’t possible for many people, at least not on a consistent basis.

Lack of Sleep Can Be Dangerous

Apart from some health issues that can build up over time due to constant lack of sleep, there are some more immediate dangers. For example: around 7.5 million Americans each month actually fall asleep while driving. This is usually only for a few seconds at a time, but that is all it takes to lose control and run off the road or, even worse, hit another car or pedestrian.

In 2014, there were 846 fatal crashes involving drowsy drivers. These deadly accidents usually happened from midnight to 6am, and most likely involved drivers who were used to being at home and in bed at the time. There can also be harmful and even deadly accidents at work due to lack of sleep, particularly for those who operate or work around heavy machinery and other dangerous equipment.

Insomnia Can Lead to Drug and Alcohol Abuse

More than 8 million Americans use prescription sleep aids in order to get a good night’s sleep. More women reported using these sleep aids than men – 5% to 3.1%. This does not signify abuse in all cases, but it can lead to more serious drugs if their initial prescription is not working over time.

One in five Americans drink alcohol to get to sleep. Again, this does not signify abuse in all cases, as most of these people are only having a glass of wine or something similar a few hours before bed time.

Stress can also lead to insomnia, and that can lead people back to drugs and alcohol in order to cope. This often starts a cycle of dependency, as some people can wake up tired the next day after drinking or taking heavy medication, which leads to poor job performance and even more stress. Around half of those surveyed, 52% of men and 42% of women, said that stress caused them to lose focus on their work.

There is still more to learn from this study. If you haven’t gone through the whole graphic yet, you really should. If you’re having problems sleeping, you may find a few easy ways to fix that, but it may also take some fairly major lifestyle changes. Getting more sleep has been shown to increase well-being in most people, up to a certain point, but sleeping too much can have some negative effects and can also be one of the signs of depression.

This article was written by

Jonathan Prichard
Founder & CEO of which specializes in hard to find mattresses for RVs, Boats, Trucks, Sofa Beds, and Aircraft.

Stomach acidity plagues millions of people around the world, yet it’s one of the simplest things you can take control of using simple lifestyle changes. Human body requires acid for digestion, and there is nothing wrong with acid in your body, but the problem arises when the level of acid increase in your body all the time. Acid reflux, burping, bloating, flatulence, etc. these are all different forms acidity. If they are not handled properly at the right time, it can cause innumerable ailments such as cancer, diabetes, inability to lose weight, poor skin quality. 

Every cell in your body requires oxygen for health of your cell!

When you have acidity, the oxygen does not reach your cell completely and your cells are deprived of oxygen which is the vital force you have disease. And most of us choose to take antacid to kill this uncomfortable feeling and that may not be your best bet, because you may become immune to it and you end up taking higher dosage, at frequent intervals. 

Add to this, most antacids have magnesium in it and that can cause diarrhoea as well. For those with high blood pressure and kidney diseases, antacids can wreck havoc with the medication they take. Taking antacid can only be a simple fix which means it only treat acidity at a symptomatic level.

It’s all about the balance of acidity and alkalinity of your body!

Both acidity and alkalinity are important in their own way. Your stomach requires acidity to digest food, while your immune system relies on alkalinity. The simplest way to know the balance is measure your pH (power of hydrogen) level which is the measure of acidity and alkalinity. The ideal balance is between 7.30 to 7.45; your body thrives to maintain the balance as this is the ideal environment for the proper functioning of all organs and system. 

Simple, inexpensive lifestyle changes would help! 

Making your body alkaline is the key. When you eat more junk food you need to make some extra effort to make your body more alkaline; a glass of lemon water, bowl of raw vegetables, fruits, water can help you with that. Even 1% less water in your body can create acidity. Practicing breathing exercise such as yoga can help you counter acidity. 

Sleeping just after eating can cause acid reflux; especially if you had a high-fat meal. Therefore, food just before bed is something that you would want to stay away from.

Every time you breathe oxygen you help your body balance acidic and alkaline level naturally. One simple exercise you can do before each meal is to take 3 deep breaths so that you can flood your body with oxygen. 

So, get off of your antacids and try to fix your acidity with more natural means.